Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Bunaji Bulls Grazing Natural Pasture Supplemented with Diets Containing Graded Levels of Sweet Orange Peels

  • Shittu H. A.
  • Oloche, J.
  • Ayoade J. A.
Keywords: Bunaji bulls, Haematology, Serum biochemistry, Orange peels


Twelve bunaji bulls were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical indices of bunaji bulls grazing natural pasture fed diets containing graded levels of sweet orange peel meal. The bulls were aged 1.5 years with an average weight of 156 kg. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0%, 25%, 50% and75% of SOPM as replacement for maize offal, the experiment lasted for 203 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the haematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC),white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the serum biochemical indices such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, globulin and creatinine. This results show that the SOPM is safe and not harmful to the health of the animals. The haematological indices of these animals were within the normal range of cattle as reported by researchers. The biochemical indices were also within the normal range. These are indications of no deleterious effect of SOP on the health of the animals. It is thus concluded that sweet orange peels can replace up to 75% of maize offal in the diets of bunaji bulls without any detrimental effect on their haematology and biochemical profile.


Download data is not yet available.


Aderemi, F. A. (2004). Effect of replacement of wheat bran with Cassava root sieviate supplemented or unsupplemented with enzyme on the hematology and serum biochemistry of pullet chicks. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 7: 147 - 153.
Aduku, A. O. (2005). Tropical Feedstuffs Analysis Table. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Pp 11
Aengwanich, W., Chantiratikul, A. and Pamok, S. (2009). Effect of seasonal variations on hematological values and health monitor of crossbred beef cattle at slaughter house in North Eastern part of Thailand, America and Europe. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 5 (5): 644 - 648.
Akinmutimi, A. H. (2004). Evaluation of Sword Bear (canavalia gladiate) as an alternative feed resources for broiler chickens Ph. D Thesis Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
AL-shami, S. A. (2003). Studies on normal haematological and biochemical parameters of Hassawi cattle breeds in Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 6(14): 1241- 1242.
Anya, M. I., Ozung, P. O., Okah, U., Ayuk, A. A. and Igwe, P. A. (2018). Blood Profile of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats Fed Cassava Peel Meal Based- Diets Supplemented with African Yambean Concentrate. Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 3(2): 55-63.
AOAC (1995). Official method of analysis (16th edition). Association of analytical chemists, Washinton DC.
Ariyo, J. A. (2002). Livestock and Fishery. Atlas of Nigeria, Nigeria, Pp: 98-99.
Ayoade, J. A., Wuanor, A. A. and Ochepo, G. O. (2015). Performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of grazing bunaji bulls supplemented varying levels of agro industrial by product based diet. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 8(8): 95-100.
Bamikole, M. A. and Ikhatu, U. J. (2007). Utilization of melon seed husk in goat feeding. Proceeding 32nd Annual Conference of the Nigeria Society for Animal Production. Held on the 18th - 21st of March 2007. University of Calabar, Cross River. Nigeria. Pp 582 – 586
Barje, P. P., Ehoche, O. W., Eduvie, L. O., Voh, (jr) A. A., Akpa, G. N., Lamidi, O. S. and Goska, D.Y. (2013). Feedlot assessment of four indigenous breeds of cattle in Nigeria. International Journal of Life Science and Medicinal Research. 3(1): 35-38.
Bentrick, S. (1974). Haematology, Textbook of Veterinary PATHOLOGY. Publ. Williams and Co Baltimore, PP: 217-224.
Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part 2, Cambridge University press.
Daramola, J. O., Adeloye, A. A., Fatoba, T. A. and Soladoye, A. O. (2005). Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 17(8). Available at: http://www.irrd.org/irrd17/8/dara17095.htm.
Drkastow.com (2009). Globulins, total protein. Available at http://www.drkastow.com html/protein.albumin.globulin.html.
Duke, H. H. (1975). Duke's Physiology of Domestic Animals. 8th Edn. Theca and London Cornstock Publishing associates, a Division of Cornell University Press, Pp: 33.
Hailat, N. S., Lafi, and Al-Rawashdeh, O. (1996). Traumatic hepatitis in an Awassi sheep associated with septicemia. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 16: 50-51.
Isaac, L. J., Abah, G., Akpan, B. and Ekaette, I. U. (2013). Haematological properties of different breeds and sexes of rabbits. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Pp. 24-27.
Jain, N. C. (1998). Essentials of veterinary hematology. 2nd Ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia (USA), Pp. 65 - 68.
Kubkomawa, I. H., Tizhe, M. A., Emeralom, O. O. and Okoli, I. C. (2015). Handling, reference value and usefulness of blood biochemical of indigenous pastoral cattle in tropical Africa: A review: Dynamic Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 1 (2): 18-27.
Lamidi, O. S., Adamu, A. M., Ehoche, O. W. and Alawa, J. P. (2007). Replacement value of sundried broiler litter for cotton seed cake in the fattening diets for bunaji bulls. Journal of Animal Production Research. 20(1&2): 99-112.
Mayer, D. Y., E H. Coles and L J Rich (1992). Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. Interpretation and Diagnosis. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp: 328-329.
Merck Manual (2012). Haematologic reference ranges. Mareck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/
Microsoft Encartha (2009). DVD Redmond, W.A: Microsoft Corporation 2008.
Minitab (1991). Statistical software. V.16.2 minitab inc. P.A USA
Mitruka, B. M. and Rawnsley, H. M. (1977). Clinical Biochemical and Hematological Reference Values in Normal Experimental Animals Massion Publishing, USA Pp 42-47.
Ngi, J. (2013). The nutritive potential of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel meal for goat feeding. Ph.D Thesis Project report. Department of Animal Production, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Pp 23- 50
Ogunbajo, S. O., Alemede, I. C., Adama, J. Y. and Abdullahi, J. (2009). Haematological parameters of Savannah brown does fed varying dietary levels of flamboyant tree seed meal. Proceedings of 34th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, Pp. 88-91
Oloche, J., Ayoade, J. A. and Oluremi, O. I. A. (2013). Effect of replacement of sweet orange (citrus sinensis) peel meal with maize offal on apparent digestibility and nutrient intake of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats. Journal of Agriculture and veterinary science, 5(3): 01-04.
Otesile, E. B. and Akpokodje, J. U. (1991). Fatal ruminal impaction in West African Dwarf goat and sheep. Tropical Veterinary 9: 9-11.
Parish, J. A. and Rhinehart, J. D. (2008). Energy in Beef Cattle Diets. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. www.thecattlesite.com/articles/1653/energy_in_beef_cattle_diets.
Pauzenga, U. (1985). Feeding parent stock. Zootechnica Internationa, Decembe, 1985, Pp: 22-25.
Research Animal Resource [RAR]. (2009). Reference values for laboratory animals: Normal haematological values. RAR Websites, RAR, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://www.ahc.umn.edu/rar/refvalues.html.
Rutherglen, D. C. (1995). Energy and Protein Requirements of Beef Cattle. Victoria State Government Agricultural Notes. AG0374 ISSN 1329-8062
Sani, R. T. (2014). Evaluation of raw or parboiled rice offal as energy source in fattening bunaji bulls. M.Sc. theses, Department of Animal Science Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Pp. 17-19.
Soetan, K. O., Akinrinde, A. S. and Ajibade, T. O. (2013). Preliminary studies on the haematological parameters of cockerels fed raw and processed guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor). Proceeding of Annual Conference, Nigeria Society of Animal Production. Pp. 49-52.
TAC (2002). Tactical Air Command Meteorological Data. Nigeria Air Force Makurdi.
TAC (2009). Makurdi weather elements records. Makurdi Metereological station. Nigeria Air Force Makurdi, Tactical Air Command, Makurdi, Nigeria.
Wuanor, A. A., Ayoade, J. A. and Yusuf, T. (2018). Performance of bunaji bulls fed pleurotus tuber regium biodegraded rice offal incorporated diets. Journal of Animal Husbandry and Diary Science 2(1): 22-29
How to Cite
Shittu H. A., Oloche, J., & Ayoade J. A. (2020). Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Bunaji Bulls Grazing Natural Pasture Supplemented with Diets Containing Graded Levels of Sweet Orange Peels. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 3(2), 100 - 109. Retrieved from https://njast.com.ng/index.php/home/article/view/83