Molecular Techniques for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Livestock Diseases

  • Salisu, I. B. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa StateNigeria.
  • Amin, A. B. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria.
  • Ibrahim, A. A. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria.
  • Abdurrahman, S. L. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria.
  • Ali, Q. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
Keywords: Livestock, Infectious disease, Molecular diagnostics, Multiplex-PCR


This review is aimed at highlighting some of the advanced technologies used currently for rapid and early diagnosis of some important animal diseases. Animal health is under continuous threat from a number of dreaded infectious diseases, which results in substantial economic loss to livestock owners. Maintenance of good animal health depends on early, precise and rapid identification of a range of diseases which are essentially infectious. Conventional diagnostic approaches have been used for infectious disease diagnosis, however, these methods are less sensitive, time consuming and labour intensive. The effective control and treatment of animal diseases requires access to diagnostic tests that are rapid, reliable and highly sensitive. The use of recent molecular technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex-PCR, DNA microarray, next generation sequencing, and improved immunoassay have now revolutionized the disease diagnostic procedures by providing precise diagnosis or detailed characterization of any pathogen or host pathogen interactions. These advanced methods are highly sensitive, rapid, specific, less tedious and helps in early disease detection. Thus, proper application of these techniques will enhance effective control and treatment of these important animal diseases.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed, S. A., Sandai, D. A., Musa, S., Hoe, C. H., Riadzi, M., Lau, K. L., & Tang, T. H. (2012). Rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis by multiplex PCR. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 19(3), 9.

Bai, Y., Sartor, M., & Cavalcoli, J. (2012). Current status and future perspectives for sequencing livestock genomes. Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 3(1), 8.

Cai, H., Caswell, J., & Prescott, J. (2014). Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective. Veterinary pathology, 51(2), 341-350.

Callens, M., & De Clercq, K. (1999). Highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus based on a single tube RTPCR system and DIG-ELISA detection. Journal of virological methods, 77(1), 87-99.

Carr, J., Williams, D. G., & Hayden, R. T. (2010). Molecular Detection of Multiple Respiratory Viruses Molecular Diagnostics (pp. 289-300): Elsevier.

Christy, R. J., & Thirunavukkarasu, M. (2006). Emerging importance of animal health economics-a note. Tamilnadu J Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 2, 113-117.

Dhama, K., Rajagunalan, S., Chakraborty, S., Verma, A., Kumar, A., Tiwari, R., . . . Dilbaghi, N. (2011). Molecular diagnosis of animal diseases: The current trends and perspectives. Pakistan journal of biological Sciences, 16(20), 1-12.

Diaz-Sanchez, S., Hanning, I., Pendleton, S., & D’Souza, D. (2013). Next-generation sequencing: the future of molecular genetics in poultry production and food safety. Poultry Science, 92(2), 562572.

Elmahallawy, E. K., Martínez, A. S., Rodriguez-Granger, J., HoyosMallecot, Y., Agil, A., Mari, J. M. N., & Fernández, J. G. (2014). Diagnosis of leishmaniasis. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 8(08), 961-972.

Freeman, W. M., Walker, S. J., & Vrana, K. E. (1999). Quantitative RT-PCR: pitfalls and potential. Biotechniques, 26(1), 112-125.

Garibyan, L., & Avashia, N. (2013). Research techniques made simple: polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Journal of investigative dermatology, 133(3), e6.

Gasser, R. B. (2006). Molecular tools— advances, opportunities and prospects. Veterinary parasitology, 136(2), 69-89.

Gettemy, J. M., Ma, B., Alic, M., & Gold, M. H. (1998). Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the regulation of the manganese peroxidase gene family. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64(2), 569-574.

Gibbs, E. (2005). Emerging zoonotic epidemics in the interconnected global community. The Veterinary Record, 157(22), 673.

Hanlon, C. A., & Nadin-Davis, S. A. (2013). Laboratory diagnosis of rabies Rabies (Third Edition) (pp. 409-459): Elsevier. Hoffmann, B., Beer, M., Reid, S. M., Mertens, P., Oura, C. A., Van Rijn, P. A., . . .

Alexander, D. J. (2009). A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Veterinary microbiology, 139(1-2), 123.

Ivnitski, D., Abdel-Hamid, I., Atanasov, P., & Wilkins, E. (1999). Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 14(7), 599-624.

Jiang, Y., Shang, H., Xu, H., Zhu, L., Chen, W., Zhao, L., & Fang, L. (2010). Simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2, classical swine fever virus, porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The Veterinary Journal, 183(2), 172-175.

Kuleš, J., Potocnakova, L., Bhide, K., Tomassone, L., Fuehrer, H.-P., Horvatić, A., . . . Mrljak, V. (2017). The Challenges and Advances in Diagnosis of Vector-Borne Diseases: Where Do We Stand? Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 17(5), 285-296.

Lee, K.-M., Runyon, M., Herrman, T. J., Phillips, R., & Hsieh, J. (2015). Review of Salmonella detection and identification methods: aspects of rapid emergency response and food safety. Food Control, 47, 264-276.

Lew-Tabor, A. E. (2009). Molecular biotechnology: Applications in Livestock Systems. biotechnologyVolume II: Fundamentals in Biotechnology, 2, 168. Linnarsson, S. (2010). Recent advances in DNA sequencing methods–general principles of sample preparation. Experimental cell research, 316(8), 1339-1343.

Loftis, A. D., & Reeves, W. K. (2012). Principles of Real-Time PCR. Veterinary PCR Diagnostics, 3.

Longjam, N., Deb, R., Sarmah, A., Tayo, T., Awachat, V., & Saxena, V. (2011). A brief review on diagnosis of foot-andmouth disease of livestock: conventional to molecular tools. Veterinary medicine international, 2011.

Mishra, C., Mishra, S. P., Sabat, S., Sethy, K., & Behera, K. (2017). Biotechnological tools in disease diagnosis in animal. IJCS, 5(6), 611-617.

Navarro, E., Serrano-Heras, G., Castaño, M., & Solera, J. (2015). Real-time PCR detection chemistry. Clinica chimica acta, 439, 231-250.

Park, S. H., Aydin, M., Khatiwara, A., Dolan, M. C., Gilmore, D. F., Bouldin, J. L., . . . Ricke, S. C. (2014). Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. Food microbiology, 38, 250262.

Pfaffl, M., Vandesompele, J., & Kubista, M. (2009). Real-time PCR: current technology and applications: Caister Academic Press. London, GB.

Picardeau, M., Bertherat, E., Jancloes, M., Skouloudis, A. N., Durski, K., & Hartskeerl, R. A. (2014). Rapid tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis: current tools and emerging technologies. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 78(1), 1-8.

Prajapati, B., Gupta, J., Pandey, D., Parmar, G., & Chaudhari, J. (2017). Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance. Veterinary world, 10(1), 112.

Rahmat, Z., Mahmood, A., Abdullah, K., & Zafar, Y. (2014). Cotton germplasm of Pakistan World Cotton Germplasm Resources: InTech.

Ricke, S. C., Dawoud, T. M., & Kwon, Y. M. (2015). Application of molecular methods for traceability of foodborne pathogens in food safety systems Food Safety (pp. 37-63): Elsevier.

Ridpath, J. F., & Bolin, S. R. (1998). Differentiation of types 1a, 1b and 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) by PCR. Molecular and cellular probes, 12(2), 101-106.

Rizzo, J. M., & Buck, M. J. (2012). Key principles and clinical applications of “next-generation” DNA sequencing. Cancer prevention research, 5(7), 887900.

Salih, D., El Hussein, A., & Singla, L. (2015). Diagnostic approaches for tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases in livestock. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 7(2), 45-56.

Salisu, I. B., Shahid, A. A., Yaqoob, A., Ali, Q., Bajwa, K. S., Rao, A. Q., & Husnain, T. (2017). Molecular Approaches for High Throughput Detection and Quantification of Genetically Modified Crops: A Review. Frontiers in plant science, 8, 1670.

Schadt, E. E., Turner, S., & Kasarskis, A. (2010). A window into third-generation sequencing. Human molecular genetics, 19(R2), R227-R240.

Schmitt, B., & Henderson, L. (2005). Diagnostic tools for animal diseases. Revue scientifique et technique-Office international des épizooties, 24(1), 243.

Schmittgen, T. D., Zakrajsek, B. A., Mills, A. G., Gorn, V., Singer, M. J., & Reed, M. W. (2000). Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study mRNA decay: comparison of endpoint and real-time methods. Analytical biochemistry, 285(2), 194-204.

Shojaei, T. R., Tabatabaei, M., Shawky, S., Salleh, M. A. M., & Bald, D. (2015). A review on emerging diagnostic assay for viral detection: the case of avian influenza virus. Molecular biology reports, 42(1), 187-199.

Shyma, K., Gupta, J. P., Singh, V., & Patel, K. (2015). In vitro detection of acaricidal resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against commercial preparation of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil from North Gujarat, India. Journal of parasitology research, 2015.

Sokolová, I. (2017). Využití non-kultivačních metod ke studiu mikroflóry fermentovaných potravin a nápojů. Thompson, A., Bench, S., Carter, B., & Zehr, J. (2013). Coupling FACS and genomic methods for the characterization of uncultivated symbionts Methods in enzymology (Vol. 531, pp. 45-60): Elsevier.

Tomley, F. M., & Shirley, M. W. (2009). Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses: The Royal Society.

Tonelli, A., Sacchini, F., Krasteva, I., Zilli, K., Scacchia, M., Beaurepaire, C., . . . Pini, A. (2012). One test microbial diagnostic microarray for identification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and other Mycoplasma species. Molecular biotechnology, 52(3), 285-299.

Tsalik, E. L., Bonomo, R. A., & Fowler Jr, V. G. (2018). New molecular diagnostic approaches to bacterial infections and antibacterial resistance. Annual review of medicine, 69, 379-394.

Van Borm, S., Belák, S., Freimanis, G., Fusaro, A., Granberg, F., Höper, D., . . . Rosseel, T. (2015). Next-generation sequencing in veterinary medicine: how can the massive amount of information arising from high throughput technologies improve diagnosis, control, and management of infectious diseases? Veterinary infection biology: molecular diagnostics and high-throughput strategies (pp. 415-436): Springer.

van Pelt-Verkuil, E., Van Belkum, A., & Hays, J. P. (2008). PCR primers: Springer. Zhang, G. (2013). Foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection: an evaluation of current and developing methods. Meducator, 1, 24.

Zhang, M., Xie, Z., Xie, L., Deng, X., Xie, Z., Luo, S., . . . Khan, M. I. (2015). Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay. Journal of virological methods, 224, 9-15.

Zhao, X., Lin, C.-W., Wang, J., & Oh, D. H. (2014). Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 24(3), 297-312.

How to Cite
Salisu, I. B., Amin, A. B., Ibrahim, A. A., Abdurrahman, S. L., & Ali, Q. (2019). Molecular Techniques for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Livestock Diseases . Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 2(1), 121–130. Retrieved from