Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Selected Browse Plants for Dry Season Supplementation in Semi-Arid Nigeria

  • Modu-Kagu H.A. Department of Animal Science University of Maiduguri, Borno State.
  • Zarah, A.I. Department of Agricultural Science, College of Education Waka-Biu, Borno State.
  • Abba-Aja, H.K. Department of Animal Health of Production, Mohammet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State.
  • Abbator F.I. Department of Animal Science University of Maiduguri, Borno State.
  • Mohammed, I.D. Department of Animal Science University of Maiduguri, Borno State.
Keywords: Proximate Analysis, degradability, gas production, browse


An experiment was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm, to evaluate the nutritive value of some browse plants for supplementation during the dry season. The browses were leaves of Acacia nilotica, Adansonia digitata, Khaya senegalensis, Ficus polita, Moringa oleifera, Ziziphus spinochristi, Guierra senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus as well as Ziziphus spinochristi pods. The results of the proximate analysis showed that the dry matter content of the browse plants differed (P<0.05) significantly and ranged from 82.36 % in Acacia nilotica to 95.40 % in Guiera senegalensis. Moringa oleifera leaves recorded the highest (P<0.05) crude protein content of 24.85% while the least value of 8.89 % was in Ziziphus spinochristi. There was an increase in dry matter degradability as the incubation time increased in all the browse plants. Dry matter degradability at 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation were high (P<0.05) in most browses except for Guierra senegalensis and Anogeissus leiocarpus leaves. The soluble dry matter fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in Moringa oleifera leaves. The insoluble but degradable fraction (b) were high (P<0.05) among the browse plants. Lower (P<0.05) values of rate of degradation (c) were recorded except for Ziziphus spinochristi pods. Potential degradability (a + b) were significantly (P<0.05) high in all browse plants. The highest (P<0.05) in vitro gas production of 48.30 ml at 24 hours was recorded for Moringa oleifera leaves. Similarly, values of insoluble but fermentable fraction b (165.73 ml), metaboilsable energy (10.23 MJ/kg DM), organic matter digestibility (76.90%) and short chain fatty acid (1.094 mmol) in Moringa oleifera leaves were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the other browse plants. The study showed that the leaves of the browse plants had reasonable amount of nutrients and as such can serve as potential supplement for ruminants during the dry season in Nigeria.


Download data is not yet available.


A. O. A .C. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis of the Official Analytical Chemists, 17th Ed. (Horwitz. W., Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Aganga, A. A. and Tshwenyane, S. O. (2003). Feeding values and Anti-nutritive factors of forage tree legumes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2 (3): 170 - 177.
Anele, U.Y., Arigbede, O.M., Olanite, J.A., Adekunle, I.O., Jolaosho, A.O., Onifade, O.S. and Oni, A.O. (2008). Early growth and seasonal chemical composition of three indigenous multipurpose tree species (MPTS) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Agroforest System, 73: 89 - 98.
Babayemi, O.J., Demeyer, D. and Fievez, V. (2004). In vitro fermentation of tropical browse seeds in relation to their secondary metabolites. Journal of Animal Science Technology, 13 Suppl 1: 31 - 34.
Barry, T.N. and McNabb, W.C. (1999). The implication of condensed tannins in the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. British Journal of Nutrition. 81: 263 - 271.
Blummel, M., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (1997). In vitro gas production: a technique revisited. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 77: 24 - 34.
Chenost, M., Aufrere, J. and Macheboeuf, D. (2001). The gas test technique as a tool for predicting the energetic value of forage plants. Animal Research, 50: 349 - 364.
Chumpawadee, S., Sommart, K., Vongpralub, T. and Pattarajinda, V. (2005). In-sacco degradation characteristics of energy feeds sources in Brahman-Thai native crossbred steers. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 1 (2): 196 - 206.
Djouvinov, D.S. and Todorov, N.A. (1994). Influence of dry matter intake and passage rate on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep and its estimation by cannulation and a noninvasive method. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 48: 289 - 304.
Encarta, (2009). Encarta Microsoft @ student 2009 (DVD), Redmond, W.A: Microsoft Corporation.
FAO (1986). Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Production Year Book, 40: 95 and 247.
Getachew, G., Blummel, M., Makkar, H. P. S. and Becker, K. (1997). In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 72: 261 - 281.
Getachew, G., Crovetto, G.M., Fondevila, M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Singh, B., Spanghero, M., Steingass, H., Robinson, P.H. and Kailas, M.M. (2002). Laboratory variation of 24h in vitro production and estimated metabolisable energy values of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 102: 169 - 180.
Getachew, G., DePeters, E.J. and Robinson, P.H. (2004). In vitro gas production provides effective method for assessing ruminant feeds. California Agriculture, 58 (1).
Gidado, O.G., Kibon, A., Gworgwor, Z.A., Mbaya, P. and Baba, M.J. (2013). Assessment of antinutritive factors and nutrient composition of some selected browse plants use as livestock feeds in Taraba State. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1 (1): 5 - 9. www.ijapscengr.com
Gomes, M.J., DeB. Hovell, F.D. and Chen, X.B. (1994). The effect of starch supplementation of straw on microbial protein supply in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 49: 277 - 286.
Ikhimioya, I., Isah, O.A., Ikhatua U.J. and Bamikole, M.A. (2005). Rumen degradability of dry matter and crude protein in tree leaves and crop residues of humid Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 4 (5): 313 - 320.
Karabulut, A., Onder, C., Hatice, K., Fatmagul, G., Ekin, S. and Ismail, F. (2007). Comparison of in vitro gas production, metabolisable energy, organic matter digestibility and microbial protein production of some legume hays. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 20: 517 - 522.
Liman, A.A., Malgwi, I.H., Nyako, H.D., Ardo, B.A., Mohammed I.D., Yahya, A.A., Antiev, M., Zarah, A.I., Yahya M.M. and Abdullahi, S. (2016). Nutrient evaluation and degradation characteristics of some browse plants in Taraba state – Nigeria. International Journal of Information Research and Review, 3 (1): 1612 - 1617.
Maheri-Sis, N., Chamani, M., Sadeghi, A.A., MirzaAghazadeh and Aghajanzadeh-Golshani, A. (2008). Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desi type chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 2946 - 2951.
McDonald, I. (1981). A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. Journal Agric. Science (Cambridge), 96: 251 - 252.
McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., Morgan, C. A., Sinclair, L. A. and Wilkinson, R. G. (1995). Animal Nutrition. 7th Ed. Longman. London, pp. 483 - 485: 538 - 540.
Melesse, A. (2012). In vitro evaluation of utilizable crude protein using ruminal fluid in leaves, whole and seeds-removed pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera grown in the rift valley of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Science, 22: 62 - 72.
Menke, K. H. and Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analyses and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28: 7 – 55.
Modu-Kagu, H.A., Zarah, A.I., Abba-Aja, H.K. and Mohammed. I.D. (2018). Assessing the nutritive value of some common Tropical feeds for feeding ruminants in a Semi-arid environment of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 1 (1): 31 - 37.
Moran, J. (2005). Tropical dairy farming: feeding management for small holder dairy farmers in the humid tropics. Landlinks Press, pp. 51 - 59.
Ndlovu, L.R. and Nherera, F.V. (1997). Chemical composition and relationship to in vitro gas production of Zimbabwean browsable indigenous tree species. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 69: 121 - 129.
Njidda, A.A. (2010). Determining dry matter degradability of some Semi-Arid browse species of North-Eastern Nigeria using the in vitro technique. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 18 (2): 160 - 167.
Njidda, A.A., Olafadehan, O.A. and Alkali, H.A. (2016). In sacco dry matter and protein degradability of some browse plants’ leaves used as ruminant feeds. In: Proceedings of 21st Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 - 22, 2016, Port Harcourt, pp. 905 - 909.
Njidda, A.A., Olatunji, E.A. and Okoruwa, M.I. (2012). In situ degradability of dry matter of browse forages consumed by ruminants in the semi-arid region of northern Nigeria.
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2 (9): 39-44.
Norton, B.W. (1998). The nutritive value of tree legumes In: Forage tree legumes in Tropical Agriculture, R.C. Gutteridge, and H.M. Shelton, (Eds.) CAB International. Wallingford, United Kingdom, pp. 177 - 191.
Nyako, H.D., Kibon, A., Magaji, M.Y. and Abdullahi, S. (2014). Chemical composition and rumen degradability of forages browses, crop residues and agricultural by-products in Adamawa State. 39th Conference, Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 16 - 19 March 2014. Babcock Univ. Ilesha-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Ogunbosoye, D.O. and Babayemi, O.J. (2010). Potential values of some nonleguminous browse plants as dry season feed for ruminants in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (18): 2720 - 2726.
Ogunbosoye, D.O., Tona, G.O. and Otukoya, F.K. (2015). Evaluation of the nutritive value of selected browse plant species in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria for feeding to ruminant animals. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 7 (4): 386 - 395.
Okunade, S.A., Isah, O.A., Aderinboye, R.Y. and Olafadehen, O.A. (2014). Assessment of chemical composition and in vitro degradation profile of some guinea savannah browse plants of Nigeria. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 17: 529 - 538.
Olafadehan, O.A., Okunade, S.A. and Njidda, A.A. (2014). Evaluation of bovine rumen content as a feed ingredient for lambs. Tropical Animal Health and Production. DOI 10.1007/s11250-0140590-9.
Orskov, E. R. and McDonald, I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science. (Cambridge). 92: 499 - 503.
Ørskov, E.R., DeB. Hovell, F. D. and Mould, F. L. (1980). The use of the nylon bag technique for evaluation of feedstuffs. Tropical Animal Production, 5: 195 - 213.
Parissi, Z.M., Papachristov, T.G. and Nastis, A.S. (2005). Effect of drying methods on estimated nutritive value of browse species using an in vitro gas production technique. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 30: 119 - 128.
Preston, T.R. (1986). Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: Research guidelines 2. A practical manual for research workers. FAO: Animal production and Health paper 50/2F, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X6554 E/X6554E00.htm
Reddy, D.V. (2001). Applied Nutrition. Oxford and IHB Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd New Delhi, pp. 87 - 89.
Sandoval-Castro, C.A., LizarragaSanchez, H.L. and Solorio-Sanchez, F.J. (2005). Assessment of tree fodder preference by cattle using chemical composition, in vitro gas production and in situ degradability. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123 - 124 (1): 277 - 289.
Sisay, A., Negesse, T. and Nurfeta, A. (2018). Short chain fatty acid production, organic matter digestibility and metabolisable energy content of indigenous browses from Ethiopian rift valley. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 11 (1): 61 - 68.
SPSS, (2006). Statistical Program for Social Sciences P.C. Version. Inc.444, Michigan Avenue, Chicago. USA.
Topps, J. H. (1992). Potential, composition and use of legume shrubs and trees as fodder for livestock in the tropics (a review). Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Cambridge), 118(1): 1 – 8. http://doi.org/10.1017/S00218596000679 40 Last accessed 16.01.2021.
Uguru, C. (2014). Nutritional potential of Acacia (Acacia nilotica (l.) Del.) Pods for growing red Sokoto goats. Ph.D. Dissertation, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Verma, D.N. (2006). A Textbook of Animal Nutrition. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi-110 002: 126 - 132.
Wilson, T. (1982). Husbandary, nutrition and productivity of goats and sheep in tropical Africa. Proceedings of a Seminar held at the International livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 61 - 67.
How to Cite
Modu-Kagu H.A., Zarah, A.I., Abba-Aja, H.K., Abbator F.I., & Mohammed, I.D. (2021). Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Selected Browse Plants for Dry Season Supplementation in Semi-Arid Nigeria . Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 4(2), 28 - 42. Retrieved from https://njast.com.ng/index.php/home/article/view/144