Nutritive assessment of selected browse forage species from Semi-arid environment of Nigeria using in vitro gas production technique

  • Njidda, A. A. Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, National Open University of Nigeria, KM4, Kaduna-Zaria road, Rigachukun, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Al-Habib, I. K. College of Agriculture and Animal Science, P.M.B. 2134, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Mando, Kaduna
Keywords: Browses, Nutritive assessment, gas production, in vitro


The chemical composition and in vitro gas production of some browse species were evaluated. Crude protein (CP) content was highest (P<0.05) in Ceiba pentendra. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin were generally high ranging from 412.10 – 68810; 211.60 – 265.60 and 88.30 – 121.30 g kg-1 DM respectively. The total condensed tannins (TCT) was highest (P<0.05) in Celtis integuifolis. The values for phenolics, saponin and phytate were highest in Ceiba pentendrata, while Batryospermum paradoxum has the highest value for oxalate.  In vitro gas production (GP) was lowest and highest in Analgeosus leocarpus (3.66 ml/200 mg DM) and Adansonia digitata (28.33 ml/200 mg DM) respectively. The GP from the insoluble but degradable fraction (b), potential gas production (a+b) and volume of gas produced (ml) at time t (Y) were highest in Adansonia digitata. The CP of browses weakly and positively correlated with incubation period at all hours and fermentation characteristics (a, b, a+b, c, t and Y). All the fibre fractions were negatively correlated with incubation periods and the fermentation characteristics. The secondary metabolites showed a weakly but negative correlation with fermentation characteristics.It can be concluded that the browse forages have nutritive potential as fodders for ruminants in a tropical environment.


Download data is not yet available.


Acamovic, T., Steward, C. S. and Pennycott, T. W. (eds) 2004. Poisons plants and related toxins. Oxford University Press, 608pp
AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 17th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Arigbede O.M., Anele U.Y., Olanite J.A., Adekunle I.O., Jolaosho O.A. and Onifade, O.S. (2006). Seasonal in vitro gas produc-tion parameters of three multi - purpose tree species in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Livestock Research Rural Devevelopment.:
Babayemi, O. J., Demeyer, D. and Fievez, V. (2004b). In vitro fermentation of tropical browse seeds in relation of their content of secondary metabolites. Journal of Animal. Feed Science and Technology 13 Suppl. 1: 31-34
Babayemi, O.J. (2007). In vitro fermentation characteristics and acceptability by West African dwarf goats of some dry season forages. African Journal Biotechnology, 6: 1260-1265.
Barry, T. N., Manley, T. R. and Duncan, S. J. (1986). The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 4. Sites of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration. British Journal of Nutrition. 55: 123-137.
Belmar, R., Nava-Montero, R., Sandoval-Castro, C., Menab, J. M. (1999). Jackbean (canuvalia ensiforms L. DC) in poultry diets: Anti-nutritional factors and detoxification studies. A. Review. Poultry Science Journal 55 (1) 37-59
Blümmel, M. and Ørskov, E. R.,(1993). Comparism of gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughage in predicting feed intake in cattle. Animal. Feeed Science and Technology. 40, 109-119.
Cerillo M.A. and Juarez R.A.S. (2004). In vitro gas production parameters in cacti and tree species commonly consumed by grazing goats in a semiarid region of North Mexico. Livestock Research and Rural Development. Available at:
Cheeke, P. R. (1971). Nutritional and Physiological implication of Saponins: A Review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 51: 621-623.
Devendra, C., (1990). The use of shrubs and trees fodders by ruminants. In: Devendra (Ed.), Shrubs and Trees fodders for farm animals. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario., E., Canada, pp. 24-29.
Dowman, M.G., and Collins, F.G. (1982). The use of enzymes to predict the digestibility of animal feed. Journal of Science Food, Agriculture 3, 689-696.
Edward, N. J. (2000). A review of tannins and other secondary metabolites in the fodder shrub tagasaste (chamaecytisir proliferus). In: Brookes, J.D. (ed) Tannins in livestock nutrition ACIAR proceedings No.92, Canberra, Australia, pp. 160-164.
Fagg, C.W., Stewart, J.L. (1994). The value of Acacia and Prosopis in arid and semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments, 27:3–25.
Filya I., Karabulut A., Canbolat O., Degirmencioglu T. and Kal-kan H. (2002). Investigations on determination of nutritive values and optimum evaluation conditions by animal organ-isms of the foodstuffs produced at bursa province by in vivo and in vitro methods. Uludag Universitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bilimsel Arastirmalar ve Incelemeler Serisi. No: 25, Bursa, Turkey.
Frutos, P., G. Hervas, G. Ramos, F.J. Giraldez and A.R.Mantecon, 2002. Condensed tannin content of several shrub species from a mountain area in northern Spain and its relationship to various indicators of nutritive value. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 95: 215-226.
Getachew G., Blümmel M., Makkar H.P.S. and Becker K. (1998). In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Anim. Feed Science and Technology. 72, 261-181.
Getachew G., Blümmel M., Makkar H.P.S. and Becker K. (2000). Tannins in tropical browses: effects of tannins on in vitro mi-crobial fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in me-dium containing different amounts of nitrogen. Journa. of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 48, 3581-3588.
Getachew G., Robinson P.H., De Peters E.J. and Taylor S.J. (2003). Relationship between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 3, 57-71.
Kamalak A., Canbolat O., Erol A., Kilinc C., Kizilsimsek M., Ozkan C.O. and Ozkose E. (2005). Effect of variety on chemi-cal composition, in vitro gas production, metobolizable energy and organic matter digestibility of alfalfa hays. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. Available at:
Khazaal K. and Ørskov E.R. (1994). The in vitro gas production technique: an investigation on its potential use with insoluble polyvinylpolpyrrolidone for the assessment of phenolics-related anti-nutritive factors in browse species. Anim. Feed Science Technology. 47, 305-320.
Khazaal K., Dentino M.T., Ribeiro J.M. and Orskov E.R. (1995). Prediction of apparent digestibility and voluntary intake of hays fed to sheep: comparison between using fibre compo-nents, in vitro digestibility or characteristics of gas production or nylon bag degradation. Animal Science 61, 527-538.
Larbi, A., Smith, J.W., Kurdi, I.O., Adekunle, I.O., Raji, A.M. and Lapido, D. O. (1998). Chemical composition, rumen degradation and gas production characteristics of some multipurpose fodder tree shrubs during wet and dry season in the humid tropics. Animal Feed Science Technology, 72: 81-96.
Larbi, A., Khatib-Salkin, A., Jammal, B. and Hassan , S. (2011). Seed and Forage yield and forage quality determinants of nine legume shrubs in a non-tropical dryland environment. Anim. Feed Science and Technology. 163, 214-221.
Mangan, J. (1988). Nutritional effects of tannins in animal feeds. Nutrition Research Reviews. 1:209-231.
Mbugua, D.M., Kiruiro, E.M., Pell, A.N. (2008). In vitro fermentation of intact and fractionated tropical herbaceous and tree legumes containing tannins and alkaloids. Animal Feed Science and Technology 146, 1-20.
McAllister T.A., Bae H.D., Jones G.A. and Cheng K.J. (1994). Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. Journal Animal Science 72, 3004-3018.
McSweeny C.S., Palmer B., McNeill D.M. and Krause D.O. (2001). Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional conse-quences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 91, 83-93.
Menke K.H. and Steingass H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Devevelopment 28, 7-55.
Njidda, A. A. (2010a). Chemical Composition, Fibre Fraction and Anti-Nutritional Substances of Semi-arid Browse Forages of North-Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 18(2): 181-188.
Njidda, A. A. (2010b). Determining Dry Matter Degradability of Some Semi-Arid Browse Species of North-Eastern Nigeria Using the In Vitro Technique. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science 18(2): 160-167
Njidda, A. A., Olatunji, E. A. and Garba, M. G.(2013). In Sacco and In vitro Organic Matter Degradability (OMD) Of Selected Semi-Arid Browse Forages. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 3( 2: 09-16.
Njidda, A.A., Olafadehan, A. O. and Alkali, H. A. (2016). Dry matter Degradability of five Ficus species using In situ and In vitro techniques Journal of Animal Production Research 28(2):11-27.
Njidda, A. A., Olafadehan, A.O. and H.A. Alkali, H.A. (2017) Potential Nutritive Value of Selected Leguminous Browse Forage Species from Nigeria Using in vitro Gas Production Technique. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science (2017) 7(4), 567-575.
Njidda, A. A. (2020). Mineral composition and variation in metabolizable energy of browse forages estimated using in vitro gas production and regression equations. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology 3 (3):22 – 30
Okoli, I. C., Maureen, O., Anunobi, O., Obua, B. E. and Enemuo, V. (2003). Studies on selected browses of southeastern Nigeria with particular reference to their proximate and some endogenous anti-nutritional constituents. Livestock Research for Rural Development 15 (9): 3-7.
Osuga, I. M., Abdulrazak, S. A., Ichinohe, T. and Fujihara, T. (2006). Rumen degradation and in vitro gas production parameters in some browse forages, grasses and maize Stover from Kenya. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 4: 60-64.
Ørskov E. R. and McDonald P. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. Journal Agricultural Science, 92: 499-503.
Palgrave, K.C. (1983). Trees of Southern Africa, 2nd edition. Struik publishers. Cape Town.
Parissi, Z.M., Papachristou T.G. and Nasti A.S. (2005). Effect of drying method on estimated nutritive value of browse species using an in vitro gas production. Animal Feed Science and Technology 123, 119-128.
Polshettiwar S.A., Ganjiwale R.O., Wadher S.J. and Yeole P.G. (2007). Spectrophotometric estimation of total tannins in some ayurvedic eye drops. Indian Journal Pharmaceutical Science 69(4), 574-576.
Rubanza, C.D.K., Shem, M.N., Otsyina, R., Ichinohe, T., Fujihara, T. (2003). Nutrtive evaluation of some browse tree legume foliages native to semi-arid area in western Tanzania. Asian Australasian Journal Animal Science 16, 1429-1437.
Salem A.Z.M., Gohar Y.M., El-Adawy M.M. and Salem M.Z.M. (2004). Growth-inhibitory effect of some antinutritional fac-tors extracted from Acacia saligna leaves on intestinal bacte-ria activity in sheep. Pp. 283-300 in Proc. 12th Sci. Conf. Egyptian Soc. Anim. Prod. (ESAP), Mansoura, Egypt.
Salem A.Z.M., Robinson P.H., El-Adawy M.M. and Hassan A.A. (2007). In vitro fermentation and microbial protein synthesis of some browse tree leaves with or without addition of poly-ethylene glycol. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 138, 318-330.
Sharma, D. D. S. and Chandra, S. S. (1969). The nutritive value and toxicity of OHI (Albizia stipulate Bovin) tree leaves. Journal of Research in Ludlhiana 6: 388-393.
Teferedegne, B. (2000). New perspectives on the use of tropical plants to improve ruminant nutrition. Proceeding of Nutrition Society, 59: 209-214.
Van Soest P.J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of Ruminants. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B. (1991). Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583-3597.
How to Cite
Njidda, A. A., & Al-Habib, I. K. (2021). Nutritive assessment of selected browse forage species from Semi-arid environment of Nigeria using in vitro gas production technique. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 4(1), 53 - 66. Retrieved from