Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as Probiotic Feed Supplements on Growth Performance, Haematology, Biochemistry and Lipid Profile of Starter Broiler Chickens during the Wet Season

  • Obamedo, T.N. Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Duru, S. Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Omage, J. Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Olugbemi, T.S. Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Olutunmogun, A.K. National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Keywords: Probiotics, Growth, Haematology, Lipid Profile, Starter Broiler, Wet Season


The study was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotics on growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical and serum lipid profile of starter broiler chickens during the wet season. Three hundred and sixty (360) day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were used in this study. The chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with three replicates consisting of 20 birds each in a completely randomized design. Control diet, Bacillus subtulis was included at 6 g, Bacillus subtulis 9 g, Lactobacillus acidophilus 200 g, Lactobacillus acidophilus 300 g and oxytetracycline 60 g per 100 kg diet. Parameters collected were on growth performance, haematology, serum biochemical parameters and serum lipid profile. The results showed that all growth parameters measured on the test materials had significant (p<0.05) influence with the Lactobacillus acidophilus 200g being better in the improvement of final weight and total weight gain compared to the control group, but similar to the oxytetracycline group. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Lactobacillus acidophilus at 200 g had better FCR although similar to the control and the oxytetracycline groups. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in all parameters measured for haematological profile except for red blood cells (RBC) count. Serum biochemical indices showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences for glucose, total protein, albumin, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine amongst treatment groups with probiotics inclusion groups having higher total protein and albumin when compared to the control and oxytetracycline groups. Lipid profile parameters considered also showed significant (p<0.05) differences among treatment groups with the exception of high density lipo-protein. Therefore, it can be concluded that inclusion of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotics influenced positively some of the growth performance parameters, haematological, serum biochemical parameters and serum lipid profile of starter broiler chickens in the wet season. Therefore, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus can be used as candidate probiotic for starter broilers. 


Download data is not yet available.


Abdel-Hafeez, H.M., Saleh, E.S.E., Tawfeek, S.S., Youssef, I.M.I. and Abdel-Daim, A.S.A. (2017). Effects of probiotic, prebiotic, and symbiotic with and without feed restriction on performance, haematological indices and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science 30(5): 672-682.
Al-Khalaifa, H., Al-Nasser, A., Al-Surayee, T., Al-Kandari, S., Al-Enzi, N., Al-Sharrah, T. Ragheb, G. Al-Qalaf, S. and Mohammed, A. (2019). Effect of dietary probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Poultry Science 98: 4465–4479.
Alkhalf, A., Alhaj, M. and Al-Homidan, I. (2010). Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens. Saudi Journal of Biological Science 17: 219-225.
Apata, D. (2008). Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and immune response of broiler chicks fed diets supplemented with a culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88(7): 1253–1258.
Awad, W.A., Ghareeb, K., Abdel-Raheem, S. and Bohm, J. (2009). Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights and intestinal histo-morphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 88: 49-56.
Azza, H.., Kamel, H.H. Ahmed, W. M., Mogoda, O.S.H. and Mohamed, A.H. (2012). Effect of Bactocell® and Revitilyte-Plustm as Probiotic Food Supplements on the Growth Performance, Hematological, Biochemical Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens. World Applied Sciences Journal 18(3): 305-316.
Cetin, N., Guclu, B.K., Cetin, E., (2005). The effects of probiotic and manna oligosaccharide on some haematological and immunological parameters in Turkey. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A – Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 52: 263–267.
Duncan DB (1955). Multiple range test and multiple F-tests. Biometrics., 11: 1-42.
Fafiolu, A.O., Otakoya, I.O., Adeleye, O.O., Egbeyale, L.T., Alabi, J.O. and Idowu, O.M.O. (2014). Comparing the blood profile of two strain of broiler chickens with varying interval of post hatch feeding. Nigeria Journal of Poultry Science 11: 196-203.
Hai, Y., Zhou, T., Gong, J., Young, C., Su, X., Li, X.Z., Zhu, H., Tsao, R. and Yang, R. (2010). Isolation of deoxynivalenol-transforming bacteria from the chicken intestines using the approach of PCR-DGGE guided microbial selection. BMC Microbiology 10: 182.
Holz, L. E., G. W. McCaughan, V. Benseler, P. Bertolino, and F. G. Bowen. March (2008). Liver tolerance and the manipulation of immune outcomes. Inflammatory Allergy Drug Targets 7:6 18.
IAR (2019). Institute of Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Metrological data information of Samaru and environs.
Isaac, L.J., Abah, G., Akpan, B. and Ekaette, I.U. (2013). Haematological properties of different breeds and sexes of rabbits. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Animal Science Association (ASAN) Nigeria. Page 24-27.
Jain, N.C. (1986). Haematology Schalm's Veterinary. 4th Edition Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Page 149-162.
Kabir, S.M.L., Rahman, M.M., Rahman, M.B. and Ahmed S.U. (2004). The dynamic of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broiler. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(5): 361-364.
Li, Y.B., Xu, Q.Q., Yang, C.J., Yang, X., Lv, L., Yin, C.H., Liu, X.L. and Yan, H. (2014). Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 27(3): 713717.
Mabelebele, M., Alabi, O.J., Ng`ambi, J.W., Norris, D. and Ginindza, M.M. (2014). Comparison of gastrointestinal tracts and pH values of digestive organs of Ross 308 Broiler and indigenous Venda chickens fed the same diet. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9: 71-76.
Mitruka, B.M. and Rawnsley, H.M. (1997). Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values in normal experimental animals. USA: Masson Publishing Inc.
Mohammadreza, P., Alireza, S., Leila, A. and Andrés, M. (2016). Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, ceca microbiota and immune response of broilers. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 88(2): 1-11.
Mohan, B., Kadirvel, R., Natarajan, M. and Bhaskaran, M. (1996). Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilization and serum cholesterol in broilers. British Poultry Science 37: 395–401.
Mountzouris, K., Tsitrsikos, P., Palamidi, I., Arvaniti, A., Mohnl, M., Schatzmayr, G. and Fegeros, K. (2010). Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and caecal microflora composition. Poultry Science 89(1): 58–67.
Mountzouris, K.C., Tsirtsikos, P., Kalamara, E., Nitsch, S., Schatzmayr, G. and Fegeros, K. (2007). Evaluation of the efficacy of a probiotic containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus strains in promoting broiler performance and modulating caecal microflora composition and metabolic activities. Poultry Science 86(2): 309-317.
Nawaz, H., Irshad, M.A., Mubarak, A. and AhsanUl-Haq (2016). Effect of probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics in broilers. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 26(3): 599-604.
Ovimaps, (2019). Ovi location map; ovi earth imaginary.
Owosibo, A.O., Odetola, O.M., Odunsi, O.O., Adejinmi, O.O. and Lawrence-Azua, O.O. (2013). Growth, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers fed probiotics-based diets. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(41): 5076-5081.
Patterson, J.A. and Burkholder. K.M. (2003). Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Journal of Poultry Science 82:627631.
Pervez, R. and Abdul, S. (2011). Effect of feed additives on the performance of Broilers. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 9: 66-71.
Quinteiro-Filho, W.M., Ribeiro, A., Ferraz-dePaula, V., Pinheiro, M.L., Sakai, M., As, L.R. Ferreira, A.J. and Palermo-Neto, J. (2010). Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens. Journal of Poultry Science 89: 1905-1914.
S.A.S. (2002). Statistical Analysis System Institute, User’s Guide. Version 9 for Windows. North Carolina, U.S.A.
Shareef, A.M. and Al-Dabbagh, A.S.A. (2009). Effect of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance of broiler chicks. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences 23: 23-29.
Siadati, S.A., Ebrahimnezhad, Y., Gh, S.J. and Shayegh, J. (2017). Evaluation of probiotic potential of some native Lactobacillus strains on the growth performance and serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) during rearing period. Brasilian Journal of Poultry Science 19: 399-408.
Sinol, S., Ingale, S.L., Kim, Y.W., Kim, J.S., Kima, K.H., Lohakarea, J.D., Kim, E.K., Kim, H.S., Ryu, M.H., Kwon, I.K. and Chae, B.J. (2012). Effect of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology. Research in Veterinary Science 93: 264–268.
Surono, I.S. (2003). In vitro probiotic properties of indigenous Dadih lactic acid bacteria. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Sciences 16: 726– 731.
Uzochukwu, I.E., Amaefule, B.C., Udeh, F.U., Dim, C.E., Tarinipre, G. and Ezekwe, A.G. (2015). Effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on growth performance and serum lipid profile of finisher broilers. Proceeding of the 20th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN) held at the University of Ibadan. Edited by: Adebiyi, O.A., Ogunwole, O.A., Babayemi, O.J. and Iyayi, E.A. Sept., 6 – 10. Page 578 – 582.
Wakenell, P.S. (2010). Haematology of Chickens and Turkeys: In Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th Edition. Weiss D.J., Wardrop K.J. (ed.) A John Wiley and Sons Ltd Publication, Wiley-Blackwell Publisher, USA. Page 958-967.
Yazhini, P., Visha, P., Selvaraj, P., Vasanthakumar, P. and Chandran, V. (2018). Dietary encapsulated probiotic effect on broiler serum biochemical parameters, Veterinary World 11(9): 1344-1348.
Yeoman, C.J., Chia, N., Jeraldo, P., Sipos, M., Goldenfeld. N.D. and White, B.A. (2012). The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Animal Health Research Reviews 13(1): 89–99
Yeoman, C.J., Chia, N., Yildirim, S., Berg Miller, M.E., Stumpf, R., Leigh, S.R., Kent, A., Nelson, K.E., White, B.A. and Wilson, B.A. (2011). Towards an evolutionary model of animalassociated microbiomes. Entropy 13: 570–594.
Zhang, Z. and Kim, I. (2014). Effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, caecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers. Poultry Science 93(2): 364– 370.
Zulkifli, I., Abdullah, N., Azrin, N.M. and Ho, Y.W. (2000). Growth performance and immune response of two commercial broiler strains fed diets containing Lactobacillus cultures and oxytetracycline under heat stress conditions. British Poultry Science 41: 593-597.
How to Cite
Obamedo, T.N., Duru, S., Omage, J., Olugbemi, T.S., & Olutunmogun, A.K. (2021). Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as Probiotic Feed Supplements on Growth Performance, Haematology, Biochemistry and Lipid Profile of Starter Broiler Chickens during the Wet Season . Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 4(4), 1 - 10. Retrieved from http://njast.com.ng/index.php/home/article/view/167