Performance and Bio-Economics of Feeding Yearling West African Dwarf Goats with Cashew Nutshell Based Diets as Supplement to Bamboo Leaves
This study was carried out to evaluate the performance and bio-economics of yearling West African dwarf goats fed cashew nut shell diets. Four diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 % steam-treated cashew nut shell coded as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, were compared. Sixteen yearling, West African dwarf goats were randomly assigned to four (4) treatments of four (4) goats each. The goats were fed 150g of the supplement and 250g of bamboo leaves, the goats were given water ad libitum. The experimental design used was completely randomized design. Data obtained were subjected to a one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and means that were significantly different were separated using least significant difference (LSD) both contained in SPSS 16.0. Samples of the diets and bamboo leaves were analyzed for their proximate composition using the methods of AOAC (2000).The study lasted for 50 days after an adjustment period of seven (7) days. Daily supplement intake , daily forage intake, total daily fed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not significantly (P> 0.05) different. Cost of supplementary diet/kg reduced significantly (P<0.05) from T1 to T4 (40.95 – 33.00 Naira). Cost benefit ratio ranged from (0.053 – 0.060) and was not significant. This study indicated that cashew nut shell could be fed to yearling West African dwarf goats up to 15 % level of inclusion without adverse effects on feed intake and growth performance, with improved cost benefits.
AOAC (2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of Analysis 17th edition Washington, D.C. Pp. 9 – 17.
Bamikole, M.A, and Ikhatua U.J (2007). Utilization of Melon Seed Husk in Goat Feeding. Proceedings of the 32nd Ann. Conf. of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 18th – 21st March 2007. University of Calabar, Nigeria. Pp582 – 586.
Arigbede, A.O., Adedeji, O.Y., Falola, O. O. and Saka, A.A. (2012). Performance characteristics and nutrient intake of West African Dwarf Goats fed cassava leaf hay-based diets. Proceeding 17th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Abuja 9th -13th September, 2012Pp. 559-562.
Chidibele, S.D and Njondjou, M (1997). The economies of goat production in South-eastern Nigeria. Implications for the future. Nigerian Journal of Animal Poduction. 25: 93 - 99
Howe, J.C, Barry,T.N, Fanimo, O.A, and Popay, A.J (1988). Voluntary intake Digestion of Coarse Feeds by Goats and Sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 111: 107 - 114
Fanimo, O.A, Odoguwa , O.O, Alade ,A.A Ogunnaike , T.O, Adesehinwa, A.k, (2004) Utilization of Diets C Containing Cashew nut rejects meal by Weaner Pigs . Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 3(1):22- 26
Ifatimehin, O. O, Musa, S. D and Adeyemi J. O (2009). An analysis of the changing land use and its impact on the environment of Anyigba town, Nigeria. Journal of sustainable Development in Africa, 10 (4):22- 29.
Kowal, J. M. and Knabe, D. T. (1972). An Agroclimatological atlas of the Northern States of Nigeria Ahmadu Bello University Press Zaria. Pp. 23 – 25.
Ngi, J. (2012). The nutritional potentials of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel meal for goat feeding .A Ph. D Thesis Submitted to the Department of Animal Production, University of Agriculture, Makurdi ,Nigeria, 175pp.
Mafindi U.M, Kiben A.U Zaklag D.U & Buda I.G (2018) Growth Performance of Red Sokoto goats fed Cowpea Husk Supplemented with Graded Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaves. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science. 20(2) 173-182.
Maithison, G. W., Mc Alhster, T. A., Cheng, K. J., Dong, Y., Galbraith, J. and Dmytruk, O. (1997). Methane emissions from farm animals. Abstract of workshop on greenhouse Gas Research in Agriculture, Saint Foy March 12 – 14, Pp. 40 – 45.
Ocheja J .O, Usman G.O, Ahmed S.H, Boyi P.U, Akoh J.O, Adamu A.T and Eboh S (2020) Performance and Feed Bio-Economics of Growing West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Steam-Treated Cashew Nut Shell. Animal and Veterinary Science (Special Issue: Promoting Animal and Veterinary Science Research) 8 (1):14 - 18
Ocheja, J.O, Ukwuteno, S.O, Ocheni, J, and Ikani .M (2013). Performance and Bio-economics of Weaner West Arican Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Cashew Nutshell. In: Animal Agriculture, Tool for Sustainable Economic Transformation. Proceedings of 38th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 17th – 20th March 2013. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Pp.75 – 79.
Lakpini, C. A. M., Adamu, A. M., Ehoche, O. W. and Gefu, J. O. (2002). Manual for Small Ruminant Production in Nigeria. Compilation for a Training Workshop on Small Ruminant production held at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Zaria Nigeria 13th – 18th January 2002 Pp. 55 – 62.
Oloche, J., Oluremi, O. I. A. and Ayoade, J. A. (2013). Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed diets containing graded levels of sweet orange (Cirus sinensis) peel meal. In: Akpa C. N., Dairo, F. A. S, Bawa, G. S, Solomon, I. P., Amaefule, K. N, Oduns, A. A and Ladokun, A. O. Proceeding 18th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Abuja, 8th – 12th September, 2013. Pp. 367-370.
Okolo, F. A., Ocheja J. O, Lalabe B. C. and Ejiga, P. A. (2012). Digestibility, performance and bio-economics of growing West African Dwarf Goats fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Cashew Nutshell. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, (IJARD), 15:1000-1007.
Howe, J.C, Barry,T.N, Fanimo, O.A, and Popay, A.J (1988). Voluntary intake and Digestion of Coarse Feeds by Goats and Sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 111: 107 – 114.
Peacock, C (1996) Improving Goat Production in the Tropics. A manual for Development workers, Oxfam African Publications (UK and Ireland) Pp. 1 - 20
Okpanachi U, Ayoade J.A and Tuleun C.D (2016) carcass characteristic, internal organs and economic of feeding sun-dried yellow cashew pulp based diets to WAB Goats. Animal and veterinary science 4 (3-1):1-6 June 2016.
Shroeder, J.W (1999) By-products and regional Available feedstuff for dairy, cattle FAO Animal production and Health paper 10:213 – 214.
SPSS, (2015) Statistical packages for social sciences. Version 23.0 SPSS Inc. Pp. 16 – 19.
Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods of analysis for dietary neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74:3583-3597.