Digestibility of Nutrients and Performance of Yearling West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Cashew Nut Shell
Sixteen (16) yearling West African dwarf bucks aged about 12 months old, with a weight range of 9.80 - 10.00 kg were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the digestibility and performance of West African dwarf goats, fed graded dietary levels of cashew nutshell as supplement to bamboo leaves. The goats were fed diets containing graded levels of cashew nut shell at 0, 5, 10 and 15% and designated as treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, at 150 g/goat/day. The goats were fed bamboo leaves at 250 g/goat/day 2 hours before the concentrate was fed while water was served ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 63 days after an adjustment period of 7 days. In the last 14 days of the experiment, the goats were moved into metabolic crates for feacal collections which lasted for fourteen days. Samples of the supplementary diets and bamboo leaves were analyzed for their proximate composition using standard methods. The experimental design was a complete randomized design and data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using SPSS version 23. The values for all the performance parameters were not significant (P>0.05). The crude fibre digestibility decreased steadily from 52.91% (T1) to 41.75% (T4) and were significantly (p<0.05) different. All the other digestibility parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) different from one another. The dry matter digestibility values ranged from 77.56% (T4) - 86.73 % (T1).it was therefore concluded that the digestibility values obtained indicated that the diets were all suitable for ruminants. 15% level of inclusion of cashew nut shell in supplement for yearling West African dwarf goats is recommended as it enhanced optimal performance and digestibility.
AOAC (2000). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of Analysis 17th edition Washington, D.C. Pp. 3 – 21.
Arigbede, A.O., Adedeji, O.Y., Falola, O. O. and Saka, A.A. (2012). Performance characteristics and nutrient intake of West African Dwarf Goats fed cassava leaf hay-based diets. Proceeding 17th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Abuja 9th -13th September, 2012Pp. 559-562.
Chidibele, S.D and Njondjou, M (1997). The economies of goat production in South-eastern Nigeria. Implications for the future. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 25: 93 - 99
Howe, J.C, Barry,T.N, Fanimo, O.A, and Popay, A.J (1988). Voluntary intake Digestion of Coarse Feeds by Goats and Sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 111: 107 - 114
Ifatimehin, O. O, Musa, S. D and Adeyemi J. O (2009).An analysis of the changing land use and its impact on the environment of Anyigba town, Nigeria. Journal of sustainable Development in Africa, 10 (4):22- 29.
Javier, E. Q. (1995)Breeding for forage quality, Food Production Technology Centre. Extension bull, 5, Pp. 1-29.
Kowal, J. M. and Knabe, D. T. (1972).An Agroclimatological atlas of the Northern States of Nigeria Ahmadu Bello University Press Zaria. Pp. 23 – 25.
Maithison, G. W., McAlhster, T. A., Cheng, K. J., Dong, Y., Galbraith, J. and Dmytruk, O. (1997)Methane emissions from farm animals.Abstract of workshop on green house Gas Research in Agriculture, Saint Foy March 12 – 14, Pp. 40 – 45.
Norton, B.W. (1994) The nutritive value of tree legume In: Gutteridge R. G, and Sheldon H. M (Editors). Forage legumes in Tropical Agriculture, CAB International Walhyford U.K Pp. 177-191.
NRC,(1996) National Research Council, Nutrient requirements of beef cattle 7th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press Washington, DC.P. 27.
Ocheja J .O, Usman G.O, Ahmed S.H, Boyi P.U, Akoh J.O, Adamu A.T and Eboh S (2020) Performance and Feed Bio-Economics of Growing West African Dwarf Goats FedDiets Containing Graded Levels of Steam-Treated Cashew Nut Shell. Animal and Veterinary Science (Special Issue: Promoting Animal and Veterinary Science Research) 8 (1) :14 - 18
Ocheja, J.O, Oyibo, A, Ajagbe, A.D, Amana, C.O, Okolo, F.A, and Peter p. (2018) Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of WAD Goats Fed Bamboo Leaves and Supplementary Diets with Graded Levels of Cashew Nutshell. Journal of Agricultural Production and Technology.7:25 - 32.
Ocheja, J.O, Ukwuteno, S.O, Ocheni, J, and Ikani .M (2013). Performance and Bio-economics of Weaner West Arican Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Cashew Nutshell. In Animal Agriculture, Tool for Sustainable Economic Transformation. Proceedings of 38th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 17th – 20th March 2013. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Pp.75 – 79.
Okolo, F. A., Ocheja J. O, Lalabe B. C. and Ejiga, P. A (2012) Digestibility, performance and bio-economics of growing West African Dwarf Goats fed diets containing graded levels of cashew nut shell. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, (IJARD), 15:1000-1007.
Okpanachi, U. (2014) Studies on cashew (Anacardium occidentale) pulp meal for feeding West African Dwarf Goats. A Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. 166 pp.
Peacock, C (1996) Improving Goat Production in the Tropics. A manual for Development workers, Oxfam African Publications (UK and Ireland) Pp. 1 - 20
Preston, T. R (1986) Matching livestock system with available feed resources in tropical countries. Tech. centre for Agric and Rural Dev. ACPEEC, Wageningen, Netherlands Pp. 1–19.
SPSS (2015) Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Version 16.0 SPSS Inc. Pp. 14 - 23
Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods of analysis for dietary neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:3583-3597.