Effect of Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ensiled with different proportions of Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureus) on intake, digestibility and growth performance of Horro sheep

  • Tusa Gemechu Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bako Agricultural Research Center. Bako. Ethiopia.
  • Meseret Girma Haramaya University School of Animal and Range Science, Haramaya. Ethiopia
  • Mitiku Eshetu Haramaya University School of Animal and Range Science, Haramaya. Ethiopia
Keywords: Body weight, Digestibility, Dolichos lablab, Elephant grass, Horro Sheep, Silage

Abstract

The study was conducted at Bako Agricultural Research Center with the aim to evaluate the effect of Elephant grass ensiled with different proportions of Dolichos lablab on intake, digestibility and body weight gain of Horro sheep. Elephant grass and Dolichos lablab were harvested after eight weeks of regrowth and 50% blooming stage, respectively. Forages were chopped, weighed separately and mixed with 3% molasses before ensiling in a pit. A total of twenty intact male yearling Horro sheep were stratified into four groups based on initial body weight in a Randomized Complete Block Design and randomly assigned to the dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were Elephant grass ensiled alone, with 10, 20 and 30% of Dolichos lablab and designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Lambs in all treatments were supplemented with wheat bran at 1.5% body weight. The study comprised 90 days of feeding trial followed by 7 days of digestibility trial. The dry matter content of the silage increased from 30.14 to 35.34 and crude protein content from 8.75 to 12.38% from T1 to T4. However, it contained 15.15, 14.30 and 50.70% NDF, ADF and ADL concentrations, respectively. The total DM intake of lambs fed T4 diets was greater by 19.53, 7.83 and 3.56%, whereas the total CP intake was higher by 31.15%, 17.36%, and 9.66% than T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Higher ADL and lower ADF intake were observed for lambs fed T1 diet. The DM Digestibility of lambs fed T4 diets were increased by 17.59, 10.09 and 6.18% than those on T1, T2 and T3 diets, respectively. Lambs fed T4 diet had higher digestibility of CP and NDF than those fed T3, T2 and T1 with comparable values of NDF obtained for T4 and T3. The lowest ADF digestibility was recorded for lambs fed T1 diet with similar values among other groups. Lambs fed T4 diet had higher final body weight (28.04 kg) compared to T2 (26.08 kg) and T1 (23.52 kg) and higher daily gain of 43.55, 59.55 and 73.11 g/day for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Higher value of FCE was obtained from lambs fed T4 diet followed by T3 > T2 > T1 in that order. Therefore, addition of 20-30% Dolichos lablab in Elephant grass silage enhanced its nutritive value, thereby increasing the nutrient intake and digestibility for better growth of Horro sheep.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdulrazak, S.A., Muinga, R.W., Thorpe, W. and Orskov, E.R. (1996). The effects of supplementation with Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala forage on intake, digestion and live weight gains of Bos taurus xBos indicus steers offered Napier grass. Journal of Animal Science 63:381-388.
Abuye, T., Yadav, R.K. and Diriba G. (2018). Supplementary value of two Lablab purpureus cultivars and concentrate mixture to natural grass hay basal diet based on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and net return of Horro sheep. International Journal of Livestock Production 9(6): 140-150.
Adegun, M.K. (2014). Voluntary Feed Intake and Nutrient Utilization of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed supplements of Moringa oleifera and Gliricidia sepium Fodders. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2(3): 94-99.
Adesogan, A.T., Salawu, M.B., Williams, S.P., Fisher, W.J. and Dewhurst, R.J. (2002). Reducing concentrate supplementation in dairy cow diets while maintaining milk production with pea-wheat intercrops. Journal of Dairy Science, 87: 3398–3406.
Ajebu, N., Adugna T., Eik, L.O. and Sundstol, F. (2008). Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 93: 94-104.
Alemayehu, M. (2004). Pasture and forage resource profiles of Ethiopia. EDM Printing Press, Addis Ababa.
Association of Official Analytic Chemists (AOAC). (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edition. AOAC. Inc. Anc. Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A. 12-98.
Agricultural Research Council (ARC). (1980). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock Technical review by an Agricultural Research Council Working party published on behalf of the Agricultural Research Council by the Common Wealth Agricultural Bureaux, Famham Royal, England pp.114-151.
Assefu, G. (2012). Comparative feedlot performance of Washera and Horro sheep fed different roughage to concentrate ratio. An MSc Thesis Presented to School of graduate studies of Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.68p.
Awet, E. and Solomon, M. (2009). Supplementation of Graded Levels of Wheat Bran to Intact and Castrated Afar Sheep Fed Urea Treated Teff Straw: Effects on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight and Carcass Characteristics. East African Journal of Science, 3(1): 29-36.
Banamana, M.S., Oldman, J.D. and Mowlem, A. (1990).The effect of amount of protein in the Concentrate on hay intake and rate of passages diet digestibility and milk production in British Saanen goat. Journal of Animal Production, 51:333-342.
Belete, Sh., Abubeker, H., Abule, E. and Nura, A. (2013). Performance of Arsi-Bale kids supplemented with graded levels of pigeon pea in dry season in Mid Rift valley of Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(20): 2366-2370.
Berhanu, A., Getachew, A. and Adugna, T. (2014). Effect of Millettia ferruginea (Birbra) foliage supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characterstics of Washera sheep fed natural pasture grass hay basal diet. SpringerPlus. pp.4-6.
Birhanu, T., Getachew, A., Mengistu, U. (2013). Effect of Green Prosopis juliflora Pods and Noug Seed (Guizotia obissynica) Cake Supplementation on Digestibility and Performance of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep fed hay as a Basal Diet Science Technology Arts Research Journal, 2(2): 38-47.
Bonsi, M.L.K., Tush, A.K., Osuji, P.O., Nsahlai, I.V. and Umunna, N.N. (1996). The effect of protein supplement source or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilization and growth of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw. Journal of Animal Feed science and Technology, 64(1): 11-25.
Brown, L., Hindmarsh, R., Mcgregor, R. (2001). Dynamic Agricultural book three (2nd Ed.): McGraw-Hill Book Company, Sydney, 357p.
Contreras-Govea, F.E., Muck, R.E., Armstrong, K.L. and Albrecht, K.A. (2009). Nutritive value of corn silage in mixture with climbing beans. Animal Feed Science Technology, 150: 1-8
Central Statistical Agency Agricultural (CSA). (2018). Sample survey 2017/18. Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings) volume, II.
Ensminger, M.E. (2002). Sheep and goat science (Animal Agriculture Series). 6th ed. Interstate publishers, Inc. Daville, Illinois, U.S.A. 693p
Ferreira, D.J., Zanine, A.M., Lana, R.P., Souza, A.L., Ribeiro, M.D., Negrão, F.M., Alves, G.R. and Castro, W.J.R. (2017). Intake and digestibility in sheep fed on marandu grass silages added with dehydrated barley. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(2):171-178.
Firaol, E. (2017). Effects of replacing different proportion of cafeteria leftover for concentrate mix on performance of Arsi – Bale sheep. A Thesis submitted to School of Animal and Range Sciences (Postgraduate Program Directorate) Haramaya University.
Firisa, W., Adugna, T. and Diriba, D. (2013). Feed Intake, Digestibility and Growth Performance of Horro lambs fed Natural Pasture hay Supplemented Graded Level of Vernonia amygdalina Leaves and Sorghum Grain Mixture. Science and Technology Arts Research Journal, 2(2):30-37.
Gachuiri, C.K. and Mbuthia, E.W. (2003). Effect of inclusion of mucuna pruriens and Dolichos lablab forage in Napier grass silage on silage quality and on voluntary intake and digestibility in sheep. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 1: 123–128.
Gemeda, D., Takele, K., Ulfina, G. and Solomon, A. (2003). The effect of age and sex on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Horro lamb, 99-103. Proceedings of 10th Annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP). 22-24 August 2002, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Getahun, K.Y. (2014). Effect of concentrate supplementation on performances of Ethiopian lowland afar and blackhead Ogaden lambs. Anim. Vet. Sci.,2(2):36-41.
Getnet, B. (1998). Performance of Somali Goats Supplemented with Different Proportions of Groundnut Cake and Wheat bran. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Gulten, K., Rad, F. and Kindir, M. (2000). Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of Siberian Sturger juveniles (Acipenser baeri) Reared in concentrate ways. Turkey Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 24:28.
Hindrichsen, I.K, Osuji, P.O, Odenyo, A.A, Madsen, J. and Hvelplund, T., (2002). Effects of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with different amounts of Leucaena diversifolia on intake, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and rumen parameters in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology Journal, 98:131-142.
Howes, N.L, Bekhit, A.E.A., Burritt, D.J. and Campbell, A.W. (2015). Opportunities and implications of pasture-based lamb fattening to enhance the long-chain fatty acid composition in meat. Comprehensive Review in Food Science and Food Safety, 14:22–36.
Hunegnaw, A. (2015). Effects of supplementation with pigeon pea (cajanus cajan), cowpea (vigna unguiculata) and lablab (lablab purpureus) on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of wollo sheep fed on grass hay. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
Jalel, F. (2013). Effect of feeding graded levels of wild silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characteristics of Horro sheep fed a basal diet of Natural pasture hay. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia, pp. 24-36.
Jφrgensen, S.T., Pookpakdi, A., Tudsri S., Stölen O., Ortiz R. and Christiansen J.L. (2010). Cultivar-by-cutting height interactions in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schu-mach) grown in a tropical rain-fed environment Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B- Plant Soil Science 60: 199-210.
Lapenga, K. O., Ebong, C. and Opuda-Asibo, J. (2009). Effect of feed supplementation on weight gain and carcass characteristics of intact male Mubende goats fed Napier grass (Pennistum purpureum) ad libitum in Uganda. Journal of animal and veterinary advances, 8 (10): 2004-2008.
Lonsdale, C. (1989). Raw Materials for Animal Feeds Compounders and Farmers. Chalcombe Publications, Great Britain. pp. 17-47.
Malede, B. and Takele, A. (2014). Livestock feed resources assessment, constraints and improvement strategies in Ethiopia. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 21(4): 618–704.
Malisetty, V., Yerradoddi, R.R., Devanaboina, N., Mallam, M., Cherala, H.K., Admal, R.R. and Manthani, G.P. (2013). Effect of feeding maize silage supplemented with concentrate and legume hay on growth in Nellore ram lambs, World. 6(4): 209-213, doi:10.5455/vetworld.2013.209-213
Mapiye, C., Mwale, M., Mupangwa, J.F., Mugabe, P.H. Poshiwa, X. and Chikumba, N. (2007). Utilisation of ley legumes as livestock feed in Zimbabwe. Tropical Grass, 41: 84-91
Markos, T., Phillips, J.S. and Worknesh, A. (2006). Sustainable sheep breeding in the Tropics: a Framework for Ethiopia conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, University of Bonn, October, 2006.
McDonald, P., Edwards, A.R., Greenhalgh, D.F.J. and Morgan, A.C. (2002). Animal Nutrition. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, London. 245-477.
Mekonnen, D., Mengistu, U. and Gemeda, D. (2016). Effects of supplementation with cajanus cajan, lablab purpureus or their mixture on feed utilization, growth and carcass characteristics of Horro sheep fed a basal diet of natural grass hay. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 6(17): 2224-3208.
Mhere, O., Maasdorp, B. and Titterton, M. (2002). Growing and ensiling annual and perennial forage crops suited to marginal and semi-arid areas of Southern Africa. Forage Production and Conservation Manual.
Muia, J.M.K., Tamminga, S., Mbuguam, P.N. and Kariuki, J.N. (2001). Rumen degradation and estimation of microbial protein yield and intestinal digestion of Napier grass (Pen-nisetum purpureum) and various concentrates. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 93: 177-192.
Mulligan, F.J., Caftrey, P.J., Rath M., Keny, M.J and Mare, F.P.O’. (2001). The effect of dietary protein Content and hay intake level on the true and apparent digestibility of Hay. Livestock production science, 68: 41-52.
Napasirth, V., Napasirth, P., Sulinthone, T., Phommachanh, K. and Cai, Y. (2015). Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues. Animal Science Journal, 86: 842–848.
Ndikumana, J. (1996). Multi locational evaluation of Napier and Pennisetum hybrids: High-lights of from the Addis Ababa. AFRNET (Africa Feed Resources Network) newsletter, 6: 1-11.
Ngongoni, N.T., Mwale, M., Mapiye, C., Moyo, M.T., Hamudikuwanda, H. and Titterton, M. (2008). Evaluation of cereal-legume intercropped forages for smallholder dairy production in Zimbabwe. Tropical Grassland Science, 42: 188–192.
Olorunnisomo, O.A. (2011). Intake and digestibility of elephant grass ensiled with cassava peels by Red Sokoto goats. Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. University of Bonn, October 5-7, 2011.
Osuji, P.O., Fernandez-Rivera, S. and Odenyo, A.A. (1995). Improving fiber utilization and protein supply in animals fed poor quality roughages: ILRI nutrition research and plans. 1-22. Rumen Ecology Research Planning. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, In: 13-18 March 1995, ILRI.
Pahlow, G., Slottner, D., Rammer, C. and Touri, M. (2002). Ensiling of legumes. Published in: Landbauforschung Völkenrode Sonderheft 234, PP. 27-31.
Phelan, P., Moloney, A.P., McGeough, E.J., Humphreys, J., Bertilsson, J., O’Riordan, E.G. and O’Kiely, P. (2015). Forage legumes for grazing and conserving in ruminant production systems. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 34(13): 281–326.
Radia, H., Firew, T., Zelalem, Y., Zeleke, M., Mengistie, T. (2013). Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Fogera Cows Supplemented with Different Feeds. World's Veterinary Journal, 3(2): 41 - 45.
Ranjihan, S.K. (2001). Animal nutrition in the Tropics. 5th revised edition Vikas publishing Resources Information. 43: 25–40.
Statistical Analysis System (SAS). (2002). User’s Guide: version 9.0. SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, NC.
Simret Betsha. 2005. Supplementation of graded levels of peanut cake and Wheat bran mixture on nutrient utilization and Carcass parameters of Somali goats. Thesis presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University. Haramaya, Ethiopia. 75p
Solomon, B. (2004). Assessment of livestock production system and feed resource base in Sinana Dinsho district of Bale high lands south east Oromia. MSc. thesis Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia. 60-64.
Solomon, M., Peters, K.J. and Azage, T. (2004). Effects of supplementation with foilages of selected multipurpose trees, their mixtures or wheat bran on feed intake, plasma enzyme activities, live weight and scrotal circumference gain in Menz sheep. Livestock Production Science, 89: 253-264.
Solomon, G., Solomon, A., Rischkowsky B. Haile, A., Mwai, A.O. and Tadele, D. (2013). Review of sheep research and development projects in Ethiopia. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).
Susan, S. (2003). An introduction to feeding small ruminants. Western Maryland Research and Education Center Maryland Cooperative Extension. htt://www.sheepandgoat.com/ index.html
Takele, K., Gemeda, D., Fayo, D. and Solomon, A. (2004). Growth performance of Horro lambs supplemented with different levels of wilted Leucaena (Leucaena Pallida) leaf. pp.248-252. Proceedings of the 12th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), 12-14 August 2004, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Teklu, W. (2016). Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (vicia faba l.) straws with concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Tesfaye, H. (2007). Supplementation of Afar rams with graded levels of mixtures of protein and energy sources: Effects on feed intake, digestibility, live weight and carcass parameters. An MSc Thesis presented to School of Graduated Studies Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia. 24p.
Tessema, Z. (2005). Variation in growth, yield, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Napier grass accessions (Pennisetum purpureum). Tropical Science, 45: 93-99.
Tessema, Z., Ashagre, A. and Solomon, M. (2010). Botanical composition, yield and nutri-tional quality of grassland in relation to stages of harvesting and fertilizer application in the highland of Ethiopia. African Journal of Range and Forage Science.
Tewdros, E. (2011). Effect of inclusion of different proportions of tossign (thymus serrulatus) in concentrate mix supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass parameters of Menz sheep fed grass hay. MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.57p.
Titterton, M. and Bareeba, F. (1999). Paper 4.0: Grass and legume silages in the tropics. FAO, Rome, Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/ 005/x8486e/x8486e0c.htm [Cited 23 October 2016].
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, B.J. and Lewis, B.A. (1994). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3597.
Wakene, N. (2001). Assessment of important physicochemical properties of Alfisols under different management systems in Bako area, Western Ethiopia. An MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemeya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia. 93p.
Wondwesen, B. (2010). Effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep fed grass hay. MSC Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Wong, C.C. (2000). The place of silage in ruminant production in the humid tropics. In: Silage Making in the Tropics with Particular Emphasis on Smallholders (‘t Mannetje L., Ed.)
Yenesew, A., Solomon, M. and Azage, T. (2013). Effect of supplementation of grazing sheep with groundnut cake and wheat bran. Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(8): 212-217.

Yeshambel, M., Mengistu, U. and Getachew, A. (2012). Intake, digestibility, live weight changes and rumen parameters of Washera sheep fed mixtures of lowland bamboo (oxytenanthera abyssinica) leaves and natural pasture grass hay at different ratios. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11 (4): 322-331.
Published
2020-12-31
How to Cite
Tusa Gemechu, Meseret Girma, & Mitiku Eshetu. (2020). Effect of Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ensiled with different proportions of Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureus) on intake, digestibility and growth performance of Horro sheep. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 3(4), 1 - 19. Retrieved from http://njast.com.ng/index.php/home/article/view/113