Economic impact and growth rate of Red Sokoto goats fed treated municipal organic waste and grass/legume mixtures

  • Anigbogu, N.M. 1Coordinator: Life-Enzyme and Fine Chemical Research (Waste Management, Utilization & Pollution Control), 2Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
  • Agida, C. A.
  • Chukwurah, C. B.
  • Afam-Ibezim, E. M.
  • Efuribe, B.E.
Keywords: Municipal organic waste, Goats, Diastic microbes, Economic benefits, Growth, Grass/Legume


An experiment was carried out to determine the performance of Red Sokoto goats fed municipal organic waste (MOW) treated with diastic microbes. Eighteen (18) Red Sokoto goats with an average body weight of 8.01±2.50kg, were used in the study which was randomized into 3 groups of 6 goats per dietary group that replicated 6 times. Each group was assigned to one of the 3 diets as follows: Diet A = 45% Untreated Municipal organic waste; Diet B = 45% Treated municipal organic waste; and Diet C = 70% Treated municipal organic solid waste, while palm kernel cake, wheat offal, and molasses were used to balance the diets as formulated for the experiment. Each group was given diets that comprised of hay 0.5kg/head of mixed 3 parts Panicum maximum and 1 part Centrosema pubescens and concentrate ration mixture containing treated or untreated MOW, were offered daily, separately at 7:30am and 4:30pm, respectively. The goats were fed ad-libitum and clean water provided. They were weighed at the beginning of the study and at weekly intervals for 52 days. Feed was measured before giving to the animals for data collection. As noted on the average daily weight gain, feed intake and efficiency of feed utilization respectively, while the average daily concentrate and forage intakes revealed  (p>0.05). There is (p<0.05 and p<0.01) respectively as noted on the cost benefit analysis measured, except on the cost of production that revealed (p>0.05). As noted in this study, the MOW when treated with diastic microbes could be used as part of compounded diets for goats at 45% to 70%, respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that, MOW which is in abundant in Nigeria be treated with diastic microbes and fed to goats at 45% to 70% as part of the formulated diets, and on 0.5kg/head of mixed 3 parts Panicum maximum and 1 part Centrosema pubescen.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams, M.C., Luo, J. D. Rayward, S. King, Gibson R. and Moghaddam, G.H. (2008) Selection of a novel direct-fed microbial to enhance weight gain in intensively reared calves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 145: 41-52.
Akin, D. E. (1989) Histological and physical factors affecting digestibility of forages. Agric. J. 81:17-25.
Albert, J.G. (1985) Municipal waste processing in Europe: A status report on selected materials and energy recovery project. Integrated Resource Recovery. Technical Paper No. 37. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Amusan, J.A. (1998) Edible Land snails: a technical guide to snail farming in the tropics. Verity Printers Ltd. Pods Village, Ibadan.
Anigbogu, N. M; Uchealor, D. J., Eze, J. C. R, Agida, C. A, and Afam-Ibezim,E. M.. (2019) Chemical characteristics of source separated municipal organic waste degraded with diastic microbes of Achatina achatina as animal feed. Journal of Nigeria Environmental Society 12 (2): 54 – 65.
Anigbogu, N. M; Afam-IbezimE. M. and Ukweni. I. A. (2018a) Exploiting nutrient of sawdust degraded diastic microbes feed for goats: An alternative municipal organic waste management. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 49 (2): 26 – 33.
Anigbogu, N. M; Afam-Ibezim E. M. and Ukweni. I. A. (2018b) Values of sawdust degraded diastic microbes of Achatina fulica fed goats as part of formulated diets: An alternative municipal organic waste management. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 49 (2): 218 – 227.
Anigbogu, N.M; Nwachukwu, E.N., and Ezike J.C.. (2015) Application of mathematical model on efficient conversion of gross energy: A case of physio-reproductive farm animals fed bio-engineered municipal organic wastes. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 42 (2): 20-29.
Anigbogu, N.M. (2014) Quantitative mathematical modeling of municipal organic waste in estimating feed for feeder cattle: An alternative municipal organic waste management. Journal of Engineering and Apply Sciences 41 (1): 51-58.
Anigbogu, N.M. (2013) Turning waste into Gold: Utilization of municipal solid waste as feed for cattle, goats, and sheep in feedlot. Waste Technology and Utilization 6: 11-17.
Anigbogu, N.M. and Adekule-Agbale, O.I.L. (2013) Performance and economic benefits of Zymomonas mobilis or in combination with Asparagus oryzae treated sawdust fed goats as feed. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 44 (1): 189-198.
Anigbogu, N.M. and Ezekwem, E. P. (2013) Effect of Zymomonas mobilis degraded sawdust/poultry litter (Life-enzyme) on the fiber values (eNDF) of WAD goats. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 44 (2): 217-225.
Anigbogu, N.M. (2011) Energy and protein values and economic efficiency of red Sokoto goats fed Zymomonas mobilis treated sawdust in the diet. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 81 (1): 87 – 90.
Anigbogu, N.M and Ezekwem, E.P. (20I1) Protein value of life enzyme (Zymomonas mobilis degraded saw dust/poultry litter) cake produced and fed to West African Dwarf Goats. Journal of farm Animal 36(2) 23 -;
Anigbogu, N. M and Onyejekwe, I. E (2010) Direct-Fed Microbes (Zymomonas mobilis degraded rice hull) as feed for Maradi goats. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Sept. 13th - 15th. University of Uyo, Nigeria, 15: 88 - 90.
Anigbogu, N. M, S.I Ibe, J. C. and Anosike (2009) Production of life enzymes (direct fed-microbes) from sawdust/Zymomonas mobilis as feed for goats. Raw Materials Researches and Development Council, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology Documentation Innovation Fair.
Anigbogu, N.M. and Akomas, S.I..(2004) Evaluation of Musa By-Products as Feed in the Nutrition of West African Dwarf Sheep.Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, Usman Danfodio University Sokoto. 29:153-156
Anigbogu, N.M. (2003) Growth response of West African dwarf lambs fed yam tuber peel. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 73 (4): 462 – 463.
Azzaz, H.H., Kholif, A.M. Murad, H.A. Hanfy, M.A. and Abdel Gawad, M.H., (2012) Utilization of cellulolytic enzymes to improve the nutritive value of banana wastes and performance of lactating goats. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7: 664-673.
Azzaz, H.H., H.A. Aziz, E.S.A. Farahat and H.A. Murad, (2015) Impact of microbial feed supplements on the productive performance of lactating nubian goats. Global Vet. 14: 567-575.
Azzaz, H.H., H.A. Murad, A.M. Kholif, T.A. Morsy, A.M. Mansour and H.M. El-Sayed. (2013) Increasing nutrients bioavailability by using fibrolytic enzymes in dairy buffaloes feeding. J. Biol. Sci. 13: 234-241.
Azzaz, H.H., H.M. Ebeid, T.A. Morsy and S.M. Kholif, (2015) Impact of feeding yeast culture or yeast culture and propionibacteria 169 on the productive performance of lactating buffaloes. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 10: 107-116.
Babayemi, J. O, Dauda, K. T. (2009). Evaluation of solid waste generation, categories and disposal options in developing countries: A case study of Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. environ. Manage 13(3) 83-88.
Bengtsson, S and Larsson L. (1990) Determination of starch in low-injection system with immobized enzymes. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 20: 27-29.
Brashcars, M. Amezquita, M.,A., and Jaroni. D. (2005) Lactic acid bacteria and their uses in animal feeding to improve food safety. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 50:1-31.
Casewell, M., Friis, C., Marco, E. McMullin, P. and Phillips I. (2003) The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52:159-161.
Frizzo, L.S., Sotto, L.P. Zbrun, M.V. Bertozzi, Sequeira, E. G., Armesto, R.R. and Rosmini, M.R., (2010) Lactic acid bacteria to improve growth performance in young calves fed milk replacer and spray-dried whey powder. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 157:159-167.
Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. (2005) Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. The International Rice Research Institution 294 pp. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.
Hassan, J.A.G., and El Tinay, A.LI. (1995) Food Chemistry 53:149 - 151.
Hutjens, M.F. (1992) Selecting feed additives. In: Large Dairy Herd Management (Van Horn, H.H. and Wilcox, C.J., eds.), pp. 309-317. American Dairy Science Association, Savoy, IL.
Jennische, P and Larsson.K. (1990) Traditionellasvenskaanalysmetodor for foderochvӓxtmaterial. SLL metod 60.
Jouany, J.P. and Morgavi, D.P. (2007) Use of natural products as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives in ruminant production. Animal 1: 1443-1466.
Karunanandaa, K; G. A., Varga, D. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby, and Royse D. J. (1995) Botanical fractions of rice straw colonized by white-rot fungi: Changes in chemical composition and structure. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 55: 179 – 199.
Morsy, T.M., Ebeid, H.M., Kholif, A.E.K.M. Murad, H.A., Abd El-Gawad, A.E.R.M. and Bedawy, T.M., (2014) Influence of propionic bacteria supplementation to rations on intake, milk yield, composition and plasma metabolites of lactating buffalos during early lactation. Sci. Int. 2: 13-19.
Murad, H.A. and Azzaz, H.H., (2013) Cellulase production from rice straw by Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5521. Sci. Int. 1: 103-107.
Nocek, J.E., Kautz, W.P. J.Leedle, A.Z. and Allman, J.G. (2002) Ruminal supplementation of direct-fed microbials on diurnal pH variation and in situ digestion in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 429-433.

Nordkvist,E.(1989)Bestam ingavstarkelse med termostabilitamylas. SLL Metod 38.
Oepen, M. (1993) Scavenger's and recycling in Indonesia. GATE, No. 1.
Oladfeji, J.T. (2010) Fuel characterization of briquettes produced from corncob and rice husk residues. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 11(1): 101 - 106.
Raeth-Knight, M.L., Linn, J.G. and Jung H.G. (2007) Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance, diet digestibility and rumen characteristics of holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 1802-1809.
Russell J. B. and Strobel J. H. (1989) Effect of ionophores on ruminal fermentation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 55:1-6.
Sniffen C. J., O’Connor J. D., Van Soest P. J., Fox D. G., Russell J. B. (1992). A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577.
Wallace R. J. (1994) Ruminal microbiology, biotechnology, and ruminant nutrition: progress and problems. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2992-3003.
Van Soest, P. J. (1982) Nutritional ecology of ruminants. Corvallis, OR, USA; O and B Books.
Yang, W.Z., Beauchemin, K.A., Vedres, D.D., Ghorbani, G.R., D. Colombatto and Morgavi, D.P. (2004) Effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on ruminal acidosis, digestibility and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 114:179-193.
How to Cite
Anigbogu, N.M., Agida, C. A., Chukwurah, C. B., Afam-Ibezim, E. M., & Efuribe, B.E. (2020). Economic impact and growth rate of Red Sokoto goats fed treated municipal organic waste and grass/legume mixtures. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science and Technology (NJAST), 3(2), 253 - 265. Retrieved from